“A focalizer is the agent whose point of view orients the narrative text. A text is anchored on a focalizer’s point of view when it presents (and does not transcend) the focalizer’s thoughts, reflections and knowledge, his/her actual and imaginary perceptions, as well as his/her cultural and ideological orientation” (JahnN3.2.2).
Whenever focalization comes to mind, the first thing I think of is Guillermo Samperio’s “She Lived in a Story.” At first we are introduced to Guillermo Segovia, who is depicted through an external focalizer’s point of view because a narrator is describing his actions. The audience is barely in touch with Segovia’s personal thoughts; rather we are given a description of them through the narrarator. As Segovia begins to write his story, Ofelia now becomes the protagonist, introducing an internal focalizer’s point of view. Every action and thought Ofelia produces is documented through her own words, giving off a far more personal standpoint as compared to an external focalizer.